Tag Archives: solar energy

Cordwood Carriage House

Want to have your cordwood cake and eat it too?  Building a cordwood garage with living quarters is a excellent way to practice your cordwood technique & tuckpointing.   In addition it provides a place to lay your weary head after a hard days work.Sierra Exif JPEGTwo and a half card cordwood garage with living quarters upstaris MinnesotaThe garage (aka Carriage House) has a room-in-the-attic truss.  It allows for a 400 sq. ft. living space in the attic.  Water was plumbed into the upstairs, as well as electricity.  The roof pitch is 8/12. Flatau Minnesota carriage house with logoThe stackwall corner posts are built at the same time as the post and beam framework.  Then the roof is applied and braced.  Finally the cordwood infill.  Stackwall corner as post in Minnesota with logo.jpgThe stackwall corners are a old fashioned way to build with cordwood, but the owner learned a new way to make them so they functioned as a post and allowed the roof to be put on ahead of time.  MN stackwall corner with double post framework.jpgThis is the lake home that was built next to the Carriage House in central Minnesota. OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERAThe building inspector/code official requested that pressure treated lumber be used on the exterior framing.  150 year old barn timbers from Janesville, Wisconsin were used for the interior. Dregnes woodstoveAn enamel Vermont Casting wood stove provides heat.  (Below)Another look at the framing, the timbers and the stackwall corners.   The lake is in the background. Sierra Exif JPEGHolding up the roof

This wood carving would have made a nice corner post, but it would have been very difficult to tuck point.

Below are some current photos of the Carriage House.Julie dale MN 1Julie dale MN 2Julie dale MN 3Julie dale MN 5(Below) Matt & Carrie built a similar room-in-the-attic two and a half car garage in Wisconsin.  They are very pleased with the upstairs living space.  Carrie is an architect, so she had a leg up with exterior and interior design.  Carrie and Matt Steiger 3 with logoCarrie and Matt Steiger 4 with logo

Nicely designed tiny interior space. Carrie and Matt Steiger 1 with logoShould you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.

 

Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for cordwood builders.  Cordwood Workshop Video (DVD) 2017,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices 2017 (print & ebook), Cordwood House Plans, Cordwood Shed Plans and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

DVDandPrint

Here is a picture of the print version and the DVD label in one composite.

 

Advertisements

Cordwood & the Stone Circle

Where can you find three cordwood buildings, a Yurt, a Straw-Clay Cottage, a Tepee, a sauna, the largest Megalithic Stone Circle in the USA (and is open to the public)?   Kinstone Circle near Fountain City, Wisconsin, is where.   Kristine Beck, the owner and inspiration for the 36 acre site, has created a place for people to refresh, renew and revitalize.  www.kinstonecircle.com 

For your viewing please here are some photos of this amazing place.The sun has created an angel of light on the finial of the Kinstone Chapel  thatched, cordwood chapel is a beauty.jpgThe 12 sided cordwood chapel with thatched roof.KInstone Rick Swanson 1The Dragon’s Keep with living room.   Most excellent photos are courtesy of Rick Swanson.  http://www.foxswanarts.comKInstone Rick Swanson 2An entrance center with a Star Wall. KInstone Rick Swanson 3Looking to the every changing horizon.Kinstone chapel interior moon and sun wall1a with logo.jpgThe chapel has nature motifs from St. Francis of Assisi’s poem The Canticle of Brother Sun and Sister Moon.  The yellow orb is Brother Sun.  Stone circle with Kinstone chapel in the background low rez.jpgThe stone circle is the largest in the USA.    Visit www.kinstonecircle.com for more information, about classes, natural building and other offers.The reflection pool flows to the Kinstone Chapel.jpgThe reflecting pool gives one a chance to sit and refresh. Kinstone sauna 2 with logo interior.jpg

The sauna is inviting and cozy.

Kinstone sauna 1 with logo.jpgThe exterior is 12′ x 16′ and makes a nice footprint for a tiny cabin.

KInstone Straw clay cottage.jpgThe straw-clay cottage sits on a pier foundation and has three coats of earthen plaster.  It has honey bee motifs in the walls. Kinstone Dragons Keep 3The scales of the dragon in the Dragon’s Keep are apparent and the trapezoid window shows her wing.

Kinstone 49The large dragon (there are 24 in all) shows off his green eye.  Kinstone 51The 10 point “shed” provides a nice coat hanger for weary travelers.

Kinstone Dragon 3A

The bottle brick pattern was created using a cardboard template before any bottles were added.

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.

Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

The Cordwood Workshop Video label. DVD label cover yellow

The 30 menu items. DVD Menu 1

DVD menu 2

The Drone View is especially spectacular!

 

 

Roofs 4 Cordwood Homes

When planning your natural home, the roof becomes a very important part of your design.  From looking good, to insulating, to adding extra space, to protecting your walls, a good roof design is an essential part of every home.

Here are a few ideas “topping off ideas” to consider for your cordwood construction dream home design.Roof Gormely Minnesota building the roofA roundwood, log cabin style roof for the second floor. Roof king post truss.jpg

A simple “king post truss” can be handmade and spans a maximum of 16 feet.

Jessi hoy peterson9 living roof with logoA living roof needs a sturdy framework, proper waterproofing protection and good drainage.   The rule of thumb with living roofs is to build them like a fine cabinet maker. Ernie Slatter  roof framing.jpgThe angle cuts for a round living roof can be complicated for a beginner.

 

Cordwood workshop sauna 6.jpgA simple shed roof is very easy to build.Issac Haumesser MO larger pixel with logo

Issac built his own trusses and then cut his own dragon skin shakes by hand.Roof separate from structure.jpgThis roof is separate from the building structure.Kinstone 20 Tension ring and circular metal roof bracket makes for a strong system.jpg

A ring collar and tensioner helps to keep the poles in good alignment.

Truss room in the attic

This truss room in the attic adds an extra 560 sq. ft. of living space on top of our cordwood home. Flatau's Chateau winter with logo.jpg

This is how it looks from the outside, somewhat of a Swiss Chalet style. The pitch is 8/12.

Roof common gable or common rafter roof.jpg

A common rafter takes longer to install than a truss roof.

Reciprocal roof with cordwood and logoReciprocal roofs are beautiful, but do not provide adequate insulation in cold climates, but they sure do look good!Peter Turkow d Waterport NY with logoPeter Turkow’s childhood cordwood home.  Known as “The House with the Hat.”

These photos are meant to stimulate your planning juices.  This is certainly not a comprehensive treatise on how to build a roof, but rather a starting point from which to begin.  You will need to research the cost, buildability and “look” of the roof you choose for your dwelling.  Good fortune!

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.

Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

This is the Cordwood Workshop Video label. DVD label cover yellow

These are the 30 menu sections from the Video.DVD Menu 1

DVD menu 2

 

 

Cordwood in Oregon

Don Noe built two beautiful cordwood structures in Oregon. His hybrid shed with the cordwood wall was built with 90 percent construction scrap. It was  timber framed with timbers from large machine crates. The logs  came from an arborist who was planning to use them for firewood, the stone, windows and wood siding were also recycled. Don Noe's Cordwood shed in Oregon 2The building below is a worm farm. Look at these magnificent door hinges and the Western Red Cedar doors.  The bottle brick and cordwood masonry is also very well placed. Don Noe's Cordwood shed in Oregon 1 The shed with the cord wood wall was built with 90 percent construction scrap  timber framed with timbers from large machine crates. The logs  fromarboristDon states, “The doors (above) with the limb hinges are for worm bins located on Portland Community College Campus.”

More pictures of the hybrid cordwood work shed under construction.
Don Noe's Cordwood shed in Oregon 3Below if another set of massive hinges, a beautifully decorated celtic knot timber and excellent use of a skull and antler.   The different dimensions of rock stem wall are pleasing to the eye.Don Noe's Cordwood shed in Oregon 4All I can say is nice work Don!Don Noe's Cordwood shed in Oregon 5  www.offgridquest.com slash read-more slash 19-james-noe-s-3500-cordwood-shed-is-breathtaking

Check out the carving on the vertical timber!  Don certainly knows how to reuse, recycle and make beautiful.

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

DVDandPrint

Here is a picture of the print version and the DVD label in one composite.

For more information on Cordwood Construciton, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Cordwood Yak & Yow Barn in Alaska

Jeffrey H. Dean is a true Renaissance man: a builder, sculptor, painter, metalsmith, potter and jack of all trades/master of all trades.   Here is but one of his many projects:  a gorgeous timber frame barn with cordwood and board & batten.  This serves as home for yaks, yows and goats.  [The following pictures are the copyright of Jeffrey H Dean and are used with his permission.]  jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 2 with logos.jpgJeffrey and his beautiful wife Ranja are offering Homestead Tours of their gorgeous Homer, Alaska paradise in August and September 2017.   Sign up or take a virtual tour at the following link if you would like to be amazed and/or commission a piece of artwork.  https://jeffreyhdean.com/tour/   jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 3 homer alaska with logos.jpgNice juxtaposition of cordwood, framing and board & batten siding.jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 4 homer alaska with logos.jpgNow, wouldn’t you like to be a pampered yak or yow (cow/yak cross) in this building!  jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 7 homer alaska with logosThe vistas are truly breathtaking. jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 8 homer alaska with logos.jpgThe hay is sweet and the building so very attractive. jhdean Homer Alaska yak barn 6 homer alaska with logos                              Look at how the doors and the locks all tie into the framework!  This is assuredly a master craftsman at work.  https://jeffreyhdean.com/tour/workshop/cordwood/

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:   Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided instruction for thousands of cordwood builders.  Cordwood Workshop Video (2017),  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (2017) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Here is a picture of the Cordwood Workshop Video cover, featuring the Cordwood Education Center.

DVD label cover yellow.jpg

For more information on Cordwood Construction, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   Below is the 30 item Video menu. 

DVD Menu 1A 400 pixels

DVD menu 2A 400 pixels.jpg

Cordwood in Colorado at Aspen Valley Ranch

Ryan Ross of Woodland Park, Colorado was kind enough to share these photos.  Ryan wrote, “We have our own portable sawmill and cut all the timber-frame material right here on the ranch…the walls are 8″ thick because we use this as an art studio/educational space. We got a little carried away with ideas and tried to incorporate as many interesting things in the walls as we could.”Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 1Aspen Valley Ranch runs programs for philanthropy and conservation of the environment, which includes natural building.  They have erected cordwood cabins on the property  for use by the students. Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 2This is the link for accessing their website.  http://www.ppcf.org/our-projects/aspen-valley-ranch/Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 3The tree branch in the tree with glass is simply wonderful.Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 4

Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 5Note how the roof gable is filled with branches. Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 6The view is spectacular.Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 7Students need tables, a chair and an inspirational view.Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 8Beautiful bottle end/bottle brick work complete with recycled door!Ryan Ross Aspen Valley Ranch 9The round bubble window provides a porthole-like-view of the mountains.Ryan Ross Woodland Park, COTeaching the students how to build using cordwood construction was a meaningful and rewarding experience. Ryan Ross Woodland Park, CO3

Tuck pointing the top of the cordwood wall.

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for thousands of cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Here is a picture of the Cordwood Workshop Video cover, featuring the Cordwood Education Center.

DVD label cover yellow.jpg

For more information on Cordwood Construction, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   Below is the 30 item Video menu. 

DVD Menu 1A 400 pixels

DVD menu 2A 400 pixels.jpg

Cordwood Patio Floor in Slovakia

Continue reading

Cordwood in New Zealand

Clifton Loveridge of Loveridge Woodcraft sent the following pictures of this beautiful cordwood build in Tokomaru Bay, New Zealand.  Clifton used Macrocarpa log ends 350mm thick (14 inches), posts were Macrocarpa and Manuka wrapped in thick plastic and mortared.Loveridge Woodcraft NZ Tokomaru Bay 2 with logo.jpgBeautiful flooring using stones and large slabs of stone.Loveridge Woodcraft NZ Tokomaru Bay 1 with logo.jpgIt boasts a “Hessian Ceiling”, (which is burlap stapled between the roundwood rafters)  glass wool (fiberglass) insulation and an iron roof.  Clifton states, “I’m keen to build more of these.”   Loveridge Woodcraft NZ Tokomaru Bay 3The cordwood building is 30′ x 20′ (600 square feet). The exterior has a few very large diameter pieces of wood.Loveridge Woodcraft NZ Tokomaru Bay 4A.jpgIt is built right into New Zealand’s  natural landscape.

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for thousands of cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Here is a picture of the Cordwood Workshop Video cover, featuring the Cordwood Education Center.

DVD label cover yellow.jpg

For more information on Cordwood Construction, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   Below is the 30 item Video menu. 

DVD Menu 1A 400 pixels

DVD menu 2A 400 pixels.jpg

Cordwood Cottage in Tlaxcala, Mexico

Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas sent these lovely photos of his cordwood building project in the forests of Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, Mexico.   Here are some of the details.  He used red cedar and white cedar for the cordwood infill. The posts are white cedar. The beams are Oyamel wood and Pino Ocote.

Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas 9.jpg

The stone and masonry work is very attractive.

Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas 6.JPG

The adobe block bricks are used for the bathroom.

Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas 10 logo.jpg

The interior is comfortable and inviting.

Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas 5Mario has completed some other cordwood work for the Nature Sanctuary at Canto del Bosque in Mexico, like the bath house (below).Mario Alberto Bastida Vargas 11.jpg

The bathhouse was built a few years ago.  The mountains in the distance certainly add to the ambience of the site.   There is now a large round celebration pavilion made partially with cordwood near the bathhouse.

Mario in Mexico 5.jpg

Mario in Mexico 1.jpgMario used my favorite mortar recipe of 3 masons sand, 2 soaked softwood sawdust, 1 Type S hydrated lime and 1 portland cement.  He is very pleased with the results.

The Canto del Bosque Nature Sanctuary can be contacted at the following link.

 https://www.facebook.com/santuario.delasluciernagasnanacamilpa/

Cordwood Construction Best Practices is in English and although the pictures are worth a thousand words, it can be translated in any language using Google Translate (which is free).  Simply copy and paste text into the program and select the language.

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for thousands of cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Here is a picture of the Cordwood Workshop Video cover, featuring the Cordwood Education Center.

DVD label cover yellow.jpg

For more information on Cordwood Construction, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   Below is the 30 item Video menu. 

DVD Menu 1A 400 pixels

DVD menu 2A 400 pixels.jpg

 

Funky Cordwood Windows

Can you make a window using a hollowed out log and plexiglass?  Of course you can if you follow the method that Pelle Henriksson used in his sauna.  All pictures are courtesy of Pelle Henriksson and are used with permission.  Pelle window log 31.  First you clean out and sand the hollowed out log.  Pelle window log 7

2. Once clean it must be routed with a hand router so that the window can be cut and fit to the opening.  Pelle window log 63.   Make a template with a piece of heavy duty paper and a scissors or sharp knife. Pelle window log 5 Did a paper trace and then googled how to cut glass.4.  Cut the piece of plexiglass (available in hardware stores and building supply stores) to match the template. Pelle window log 45. Then use silicone caulk to attach the glass securely to the routed edge.  Pelle window log 36.  Note that the glass portion goes to the outside of the cordwood wall and the inside is more like a shelf.  This would not be advisable for a house in a very cold climate as it would have a very low thermal resistance (R-value).  This application is on a sauna.   Pelle window log 2

7.  Pelle caulked his window on the outside and painted it before inserting it into his cordwood sauna wall. Pelle window log 1Want to see how Pelle’s built his sauna?  Click on the link below:    https://cordwoodconstruction.wordpress.com/2017/06/08/swedish-cordwood-sauna-by-pelle/

Should you wish to learn how to build a cordwood cottage, cabin or home, please visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   While you are there, click on the pictures, read the brief articles, check out the latest workshops and newsletter and if you are interested click on the Online Bookstore to see all the cordwood literature available in print and ebook format.Cordwood Construction Best Practices Front_Cover_-_CC_Best_Practices small pixelsIf you have questions that aren’t answered on the website you can email me at richardflatau@gmail.com  

Readers have requested a brief bio, so here goes:

Richard & Becky Flatau built their mortgage-free cordwood home in 1979 in Merrill, Wisconsin. Since then, they have written books, conducted workshops, facilitated the 2005,  2011 and 2015 Cordwood Conferences and provided consultation for thousands of cordwood builders.  Cordwood Construction: Best Practices DVD,  Cordwood Construction Best Practices (print) and Cordwood Conference Papers 2015 are the newest publications available from their online cordwood bookstore.   www.cordwoodconstruction.org

Here is a picture of the Cordwood Workshop Video cover, featuring the Cordwood Education Center.

DVD label cover yellow.jpg

For more information on Cordwood Construction, click on the picture or visit www.cordwoodconstruction.org   Below is the 30 item Video menu. 

DVD Menu 1A 400 pixels

DVD menu 2A 400 pixels.jpg